|Beginnings of the Mission|
|Mission Santa Ines was founded on September 17, 1804 by Father Esteban Tapis. It was the 19th mission founded in the Alta California mission chain and was named for Saint Agnes. Two hundred Natives attended the ceremony held to found the Mission.|
|Location and Geography|
|The site chosen was high on a hill near the Santa Ynez River. The Mission was built to fill a gap between Mission Santa Barbara and Mission San Luis Obispo. The site was originally named Alajulapa or ‘corner by local natives. The Mission was nicknamed the “Hidden Gem of the Missions” because of its beautiful location.|
|The Native Americans|
|The main tribe in the area around Mission Santa Ines was the Chumash. The Chumash were one of the larger tribes in California. Like most of the other tribes in California, the Chumash were nomadic. That means that they lived in one area for a time and would move their entire community to follow herds for food or when too much garbage piled up they would burn down the old ones and find another site to build their homes. Men hunted and fished to provide food while the women gathered acorns, wild herbs, roots, and berries to help feed their families.
By the height of the Missions lifespan there were 768 neophytes living at the Mission.
|Architecture and Layout|
The Fathers followed a regular plan for creating the layout of the mission buildings. Right after blessing the site the Fathers and the soldiers would start building a small building to hold the religious ceremonies, called a Mass. They would encourage local Natives to help them. Many often did; they were fascinated by the tools and gifts that the Fathers had brought with them. The first buildings would be built of wood poles and brush. Eventually the buildings would be replaced by larger adobe brick or stone buildings. After a chapel or church was finished where the Fathers and Neophytes could hold Mass they would start building the Convento. The Convento was where the Fathers would live. Next would come workshops and the Monjerio. The Monjerio was where unmarried girls and women would live and be locked in at night. The Fathers didnt think that unmarried girls and women should live near single men. Eventually there would be enough buildings for four sides of a square or quadrangle. The Mission complexes werent perfect squares because the Fathers didnt have a way to measure distance other than walking off distances. Most Missions included a fountain. The fountain was used for washing, laundry, and water. The more fancy the fountain the more successful the Mission.
The first section of the quadrangle was finished in 1804 and two more sections were complete by 1806. A series of strong earthquakes struck Southern California and on December 21, 1812 two earthquakes 15 minutes apart destroyed the first church and other buildings. The Mission buildings were repaired and the monjerio and granary were finished in 1813. A new church was finished in 1817. The windows in the church were built higher than normal because the Fathers were concerned about attack from local Natives.
|Life at the Mission|
Life at the Mission was difficult for both the Fathers and the Natives. During the early years most Missions had trouble supporting themselves and depended on deliveries of supplies and food from New Spain and other Missions. Often the ships were unable to make the trip and the Missions members went hungry. It normally took several years before a Mission was able to plant enough food and raise enough cattle and other animals to be able to feed everyone who lived at the Mission.
Those that lived at the Mission went by a strict schedule. The Fathers were used to this type of lifestyle, but the neophytes were not. The structure of Mission life was one of the reasons many Native Californians tried to leave. A French explorer, Jean François de La Pérouse, visited Mission San Carlos is 1786 and wrote a detailed account of what he observed. Events at the Mission were signaled by the ringing of the Mission bells. Each day started around sunrise (about 6am). The Mission bells would ring to wake everyone and summon them to Mass and morning prayers. Prayer lasted for about an hour and then everyone would go to breakfast. Atole, a type of soup made from barley and other grains, would be served. Breakfast took about 45 minutes and then it was time for everyone to go to work.
The Fathers were responsible for running the Mission and instructing the new converts and children in the Catholic faith. Most of the men went to the fields to tend to the crops or to help with the animals while women stayed at the Mission and worked on domestic chores such as weaving cloth and making clothes, boiling down fat to make soap and candles, and tending to the vegetable gardens. Children often helped at these chores around the Mission once their religious instruction was over. Depending on the particular industry at the Mission there also might be neophytes leatherworking, metalworking, wine making, and pressing olives for olive oil.
At noon the bells would ring again for everyone to gather for dinner, what we would call lunch. Lunch was normally pozole, another thick soup with beans and peas. After an afternoon break everyone returned to their work for another two to four hours depending on how much work there was to be done. A last bell would be rung to end the work day. Another serving of Atole would be served and the neophytes would be able to rest until it was time for bed (Margolin, Pg. 85). Women were usually expected to go to bed by 8pm and men by 9pm. Most of the Fathers allowed their neophytes to continue to hunt and gather additional foods and to cook some of their traditional dishes.
Living at the Mission was often difficult for new converts. They were used to working when work needed to be done and resting when they were tired. The Mission lifestyle was different. The Neophytes were the main source of labor for the Missions. It was their hard work along with the soldiers and Fathers that built the Missions and their outbuildings. Agriculture and ranching required constant tending to the crops and animals. Without this labor the Missions would not have been able to survive. Many neophytes missed the freedom of their tribal life and would try to leave the Mission. The Fathers wouldnt allow neophytes to leave and would send soldiers to search for them and bring them back. Runaways were usually punished for breaking the rules.
The soil around the Mission was very good and the Mission grew several types of crops including wheat, barley, corn, and beans. The Mission also raised cattle, sheep, horses, and pigs. Mission Santa Ines was considered one of the richest missions. Neophytes were trained in skilled arts and they were able to make and trade leather and metal items made at the Mission.
Mission Santa Ines was the site of an Indian Rebellion in February 1824. Local Chumash tribe members were upset over their treatment and attacked the Mission.
|The End of the Mission Period|
|The Mission was secularized in 1834. The Governor and Bishop of California at the time decided that they could get around secularization if they created a religious college at the Mission. By 1846 when Governor Pio Pico sold the last of the Mission lands to two Mexican settlers, Jose Covarrubias and Joaquin Carrillo, for $7000 he was still unable to seize the lands set aside for the college. Those lands remained in Church hands until 1882.
|Reconstruction and The Mission Today|
|The Mission has remained in good shape. Approximately 25% of the Mission was restored by Alexander Buckler in 1904. Restoration continued from 1947 through 1954 which included rebuilding the bell tower and other buildings.|
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